Common types of urine tests that are commonly performed that are part of routine urinalysis include testing specific proteins or chemicals in the body, pregnancy tests and drug tests.
Urine pregnancy tests are very common. They measure a specific hormone contained in the urine called beta- human chorionic gonadotropin or beta-HCG. This hormone is associated with pregnancy. The test can be conducted at a medical facility. However, there are also many kits that are available to be used at home.
There are types of urine tests that are used in evaluating various medical conditions. For example, urine creatinine for the assessment of kidney disease and urine culture to determine what the bacterial cause is of a urine infection.
What Is Urinalysis?
Like the name indicates, it is an analysis of urine. This test is very common. It is conducted in many different types of healthcare settings, including hospitals, laboratories, urgent care facilities and doctor’s offices.
To perform the test, a urine sample is collected from the patient using a specimen cup. Normally only a small amount of urine (30-60 ml) is needed for a urinalysis test. To analyze the sample, it can sent to a lab where tests are performed or analyzed at the medical clinic where the test is performed. The abbreviation for Urinalysis is UA.
Evaluation of the urine can be done through the use of macroscopic analysis or on the basis of its physical appearance (clarity, odor, cloudiness, color). The analysis can also done through microscopic assessment or based on its molecular or chemical properties.
A doctor may order urinalysis for several different reasons, including:
Routine medical evaluations: annual screening, assessment prior to surgery, for hospital admission or screening for liver disease, high blood pressure, kidney disease, etc.
Assessing specific symptoms: blood in urine, fever, flank pain, painful urination, abdominal pain or other kinds of urinary issues.
Diagnosing medical conditions: kidney inflammation, protein in urine, muscle breakdown, kidney impairment, uncontrolled diabetes, kidney stones, kidney infection or urinary tract infection.
Monitoring progress of disease and responses to therapy: blood in urine, protein in urine, kidney infection, blood pressure associated with kidney disease, lupus related kidney disease, kidney impairment and diabetes associated with kidney disease.
What do the results from urinalysis show?
Evidence of disease may be shown by urinalysis, even some diseases that haven’t shown significant symptoms or signs. That is why urinalysis is frequently included in routine health screenings.
Frequently, urinalysis is used for diagnosing kidney or urinary tract infections, for evaluating what caused kidney failure and for screening the progression of certain chronic conditions like high blood pressure.
Urinalysis may also be combined with other tests for diagnosing some diseases. Other clinical assessment and tests are often needed to investigate urinalysis findings further and to ultimately diagnoses specific features or causes of underlying problems. As an example, generally urine infection is diagnosed based on urinalysis results. However, frequently urine culture is a follow-up test that is often ordered for identifying the bacteria that might be causing the infection. Muscle breakdown, inflammation of the kidneys and kidney stones are other examples.